- Audacity Open Source Windows/Linux Sound Editor
- LMMS Open source synthesizer and sequencer. Available for Linux, BSD, MacOSX and Windows. Large built in set of instruments; Variety of synthesizers; Wavetable synthesis, SoundFont, VST, LADSPA, and MIDI-in support. Renders to MP3 or OGG, among other formats.
- If you want to convert MOD music to OGG/MP3, several mod players support a 'wav' output driver which dumps the sampled music to wav, which you can then encode into the desired format. If your soundcard has a 'capture' channel, you may also be able to capture the audio output as it's playing, via Audacity; You'll probably have to manually select the Capture channel as the mic input device for this to work.
- Csound Extremely powerful open source synthesizer, sequencer, and more. Cross-platform.
- SoX A command-line program to convert and apply effects to sound files of various formats. "The Swiss Army knife of sound processing programs". Cross-platform.
- sfxr provides a simple sound generation system that is capable of producing almost any simple 8bit style sound effect; For more complex sound effects you can combine sound effects with your sound editor.
- bfxr, and 'elaborated'/extended flash based version
- It's also possible to use a tracker like FamiTracker to create sound effects!
- Use one of the tools in the above section to edit your sound effects files as necessary
- ModPlug Tracker Free. Can be as simple or complex as you need it to be.
- MilkyTracker Open source, Linux/BSD/MacOSX/Windows/(other platforms. Intended as a FastTracker 2 clone, so best for composing .XMs. Imports a wide range of formats, exports MOD, XM, or WAV (so can be used to help convert modules to MP3/OGG format). Supports MIDI input.
- AmigaMML Open source, cross-platform. Exports MOD and XM formats. Compose music using Music Macro Language.
- Anvil Studio Shareware Windows MIDI composer
- Rosegarden Open Source GNU/Linux MIDI composer
- Aria Maestosa, a MIDI editor which covers all basic needs and has a simple interface. Has various editors including percussion and score editors.
- A list of MIDI sequencers
- Add more!
- Playbam two totally different BAM playback programs
- Notate write BAM sheet music
- MIDI2BAM convert MID files to BAM files
- BAM2MID is used internally by the OHR to play BAM as MIDIs
- Stephanie's PC Piano play your keyboard like a piano
- ABE (Amazing BAM Extractor) extract BAM music from an RPG file
- VDMSound DOS sound compatibility
- BAM Developer's Kit for programmers who want to work with BAM
- BAMTOVGM convert BAM files to VGM files
- Musagi, by Dr. Petter of sfxr fame, is a tracker somewhat like ModPlug, but with more flexibility. Can be used to create NES- and Commodore 64-like chippy songs, or full fledged songs, which can be saved to WAVs. Use Audacity or SoX to convert to .ogg. Here's a good tutorial for beginners.
- Wolfram Tones Can generate surprisingly good random music based on genre, which you can then tweak with a set of included online tools.
- Bosca Ceoil is a very easy to use music editor that can be used right in your browser